FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF FRESH AND FERMENTED DYES EXTRACTED FROM CICHA PLANTS (INDIGOFERA TRINCTORIA) ON COTTON AND SYNTHETIC FABRICS (BORNO STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1         Background to the Study

 

The use of dye has ever been very important in creating variety of colours on fabrics used by human being. The need for dyes to beautify, renew and protect the natural appearance of clothes used is essential since cloth is one of the basic human needs. Man has tried to see that what he is wearing is attractive and presentable among his peer groups. Weber (1990) postulated that dyes create beautiful designs on cloths and colours produced serve many purposes including identity in the social life of man. The researcher developed interest to carry out a research using an indigenous plant called Cicha’. It is one of the indigo family plants, botanically known as „indigoferaTrinctoria‟ and „Baba‟ in Hausa.

 

Dye extraction is the process whereby natural dye sourcing materials plants, animals and minerals have been used to obtain colorant for dyeing textile materials. To extract dye from vegetables the dye material is covered with water and the solution heated to boiling point until the colour is transferred from the materials to the water. On the other hand the material is mixed in the water for a given period of time to allow the colour transferred into the water. Extraction of dye can be carried out by using solvent as the extraction medium.

 

This plant is available in southern part of Borno State. ‘Cicha’is a seasonal plant grown in cluster. The plants have been a source of dye used for dyeing traditional clothes jabta, „bull‟ „danbatir,’ and ‘kudzirmunggil‟ among bura people, but neglected after the advent of synthetic dyes. This plant „Cicha‟ grows about one meter to at most two meters

 

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tall above ground level. The stems have been used for making local bed frame and local door mats, the leaves were used to extract dye for dyeing traditional fabric and grey hair. ‘Cicha’ is not consumed by animals and no labour is given for its production.It is a wild plant which has been an economical plant in the society.

 

Aurora, (2011) opined that the art of using natural dye sourcing material like „indigo‟ plants for extracting dye signifies wealth. In line with Aurora, the researcher think that any society that have natural dye sourcing plants available when used skillfully can add to the economical uplifting of that society, so the use of „cicha‟ need to be revived. Dyeing is a skill that promotes the social norms and values of a society. The value of being creative and productive independent of a society is a crown in social status and religious learning including the cultural diversity and professional status. Human being’s potentiality is seen through the beauty, riches, and uniqueness in craft work of any society (Ali and Gwari, 2011).

 

As a pride of any society art of dyeing is a skill that needs to be recorded, Natural dyeing in form of stained hides, decorated shells and feathers were recorded by the scientists in colours like black, white, yellow and reddish pigments were made from ochre by the primitive man in the cave over 15,000 BC (Grierson, 2000). Adding colour to textiles was around 7,000 – 2,000 BC when fixed settlements and agriculture started.

 

Prior to the using of dyeing, scientists have not been able to pinpoint the exact time when colour was added to fibers. Despitenot knowing when dyeing started, the method of dyeing has been stated (Grierson, 2000). Although dyeing methods practiced nowadays are many, Siobban (2000) said that the first method of dyeing was by staining item through rubbing parts of the fabric or soaking. There was no sort of chemical

 

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fixation to preserve the colour used, pigmentation was the next method used for dyeing. True dyeing is when the colour is deposited on a substance in an insoluble form, forming a solution containing the colorant, and the art of dyeing might have started since the discovery of textiles by the primitive man (Benson, 2007).Dye and dyeing therefore is a process that involves using of different substances essential for the development of colours on fibers.This process also requires an organized procedure to achieve the result.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

 

Borno state is blessed with ‘Cicha’ plant a dye sourcing material but is neglected in this present time. Scarcity of synthetic dyes has been identified as the major problem for teachers’ and lecturers’ inability to perform effective practical skills in Schools and Colleges. As experienced by the researcher inadequate availability and supply of dyes have hindered the development and acquisition of the practical skills by students because teachers resorted to theoretical lessons only. ‘Cicha’ plant,have been a means of dye used in Borno state prior to the advent of synthetic dyes, but with the advent of the new dyes, traditional extracts from ‘cichaplant have been neglected this,then led to this research.

 

This was buttressed by Bappa and Isa (2009), when they stated that scarcity of dye is a problem confronting local dyers in Nigeria.With the problem of unemployment confronting Nigerian youths, particularly in Borno state, there is need to develop the indigenous dye sourcing materials. This, when done will provide self-employment and sufficiency for the youths and other members of the society. This is in line with Mohammed (2010) who asserted that ‘self-employment enables one to recognize some potentiality and makes the individual a productive member of the society.

 

 

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Based on these problems, the researcher embarked on this study to assess dye extracted from „cicha‟ plant for possible variety of colours so that it can effectively be utilized to enhance creativity in the dyeing skills among students and interested individuals in the area.

 

1.3          Objectives of the study.

 

The main aim of this study was to test the Fastness Properties of Fresh and Fermented Dye extracted from ‘cicha’ plant in Borno State on Cotton and synthetic fabrics.

 

The specific objectives were to –

 

  1. Adoptthe fresh and fermented method of extracting dye from cicha leaves to identify the best fastness quality on cotton and synthetic fabrics.

 

  1. Identify the colours produced on cotton fabric types when dyed in the fresh and fermented extracts without mordant in the cold and hot (boiling) dye baths.

 

  1. Identify the colours produced on synthetic fabric types when dyed in the fresh and fermented extracts without mordant in the cold and hot (boiling) dye baths.

 

  1. Assess the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda on-colour fastness on cotton fabric types dyed in the fresh dye of cichca extract and fermented extracts when washed with sunlight detergent powder and B29 soap.

 

  1. Assess the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda on-colour fastness on synthetic fabric types dyed in the fresh dye of cichca extract and fermented extracts when washed with sunlight detergent powder and B29 soap.

 

  1. Ascertain the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling the bleeding quality of the dye on cotton fabric types.

 

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  1. Ascertain the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling the bleeding quality of the dye on synthetic fabric types.

 

  1. Ascertain the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling migrating quality of the dye on cotton fabric types.

 

  1. Ascertain the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling migrating quality of the dye on synthetic fabric types.

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

In line with each specific objectives the following research questions were raised and answered.

 

  1. Between the fresh and fermented method of extracting dye from cicha leaves, which extract produces the best fastness quality on cotton and synthetic fabric?

 

  1. What colours are produced on cotton fabric types when dyed in the fresh and fermented extracts without mordant in the cold and hot (boiling) dye baths?

 

  1. What colours are produced on synthetic fabric types when dyed in the fresh and fermented extracts without mordant in the cold and hot (boiling) dye baths?

 

  1. What are the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda on-colour fastness on cotton fabric types dyed in the fresh dye of cichca extract and fermented extracts when washed with sunlight detergent powder and B29 soap?

 

  1. What are the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda on-colour fastness on synthetic fabric types dyed in the fresh dye of cichca extract and fermented extracts when washed with sunlight detergent powder and B29 soap?

 

  1. What are the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling the

 

bleeding quality of the dye on cotton fabric types?

 

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  1. What are the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling the bleeding quality of the dye on synthetic fabric types?

 

  1. What are the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling migrating quality of the dye on cotton fabric types?

 

  1. What are the effects of alum, ash/toka and caustic soda mordant in controlling migrating quality of the dye on synthetic fabric types?

 

1.5         Research Hypotheses

 

The following null hypotheses were testedwith the appropriate statistic at 0.05

 

level of significant.

 

Ho1              There is no significant difference between the fastnessproperties of fresh and

 

fermented extract on cotton and synthetic fabric.

 

Ho2              There is no significant difference between the colours produced on the cotton

 

using alum, ash/toka and caustic soda in the fresh and fermented extracts.

 

Ho3              There is no significant difference between the colours produced on synthetic

 

fabric  using  alum,  ash/toka  and  caustic  soda  in  the  fresh  and  fermented

 

extracts.

 

Ho4              There is no significant difference among the effect of alum, ash/toka and

 

caustic soda on colour fastness in the fresh and fermented extracts on cotton.

 

Ho5              There is no significant difference among the effect of alum, ash/toka and

 

caustic  soda  on  colour    fastness  in  the  fresh  and  fermented    extracts   on

 

synthetic fabrics.

 

Ho6              There is no significant difference among the effects of alum, ash/toka and

 

caustic soda on dye bleeding control on cotton.

 

 

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Ho7

 

 

 

 

Ho8

 

 

 

 

Ho9

There is no significant difference among the effects of alum, ash/toka and

 

caustic soda on dye bleeding control on synthetic fabric

 

There is no significant difference among the effect of alum, ash/toka and

 

caustic soda on the migrating control of dye on cotton tested.

 

There is no significant difference among the effect of alum, ash/toka and

 

caustic soda on the migrating control of dye on synthetic fabric tested.

 

 

1.6         Significance of the Study

 

The researcher is of the opinion that the finding is going to help students and youths in Borno State in particular and Nigeria in general will acquire the methods of extracting dye from indigenous plants for the practical lesson in clothing and textile and small scale dyeing centers. Methods used will be useful for Home Economics teachers when extracting dye using other indigenous plants to extract different dye for teaching learning purpose.Youths from the study area will benefit from the findings as it will keep a record on „cicha‟ plant being an important plant for economic development which has been neglected by the past generation.

 

1.7         Basic Assumption of the Study

 

 

The assumptions of this study were that:

 

 

  1. Extracted dye from „cicha‟leaves canonly be suitable for dyeing natural fabric effectively using the fresh and fermented methods of dye extraction.

 

  1. Extracted dye from cicha leaves using the fresh and fermented dye extraction cannot dye synthetics fabrics effectively, it will only stain it.

 

 

 

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  1. Without the use of mordant, dyeing using fresh and fermented dye extraction

 

methods using water cannot prevent colour loose in washing test.

 

Finally everybody in Nigeria will benefit from this research. Interested Individuals who are creative will use the plants to extract dye for dyeing in schools, at home and at small scale dying centres. This will make unemployed youths secure jobs and be self employed by operating small scale dyeing centers.

 

1.8          Delimitation of the study

 

This study was delimited to use of „cicha‟ leaves adopting fresh and fermented methods of extracting dye using water only as the main solvent for the extraction- This is because the two methods of extraction can be carried out successfully by individuals in the schools located in the rural areas inBorno state. The leaves of the plants is also easy to collect because the plant produces many leaves when in season which shows that there will be no scarcity. The selection of the mordantswas delimited to alum, ash/toka and caustic soda as bonding agent because of their availability and easy to lay hands upon. They are also cheap and obtainable at any time in the study area. The selections of the fabrics for dyeing experiment were delimited to cotton and synthetic traditional woven. Calico cotton, cotton blend, and nylon are among the common types of fabrics in use and are obtained at any time in the markets in the study area. Cotton fabric especially is said to be the best fabric for hand dyeing (manual).The researcher based the research on the availability of the plant cicha and can easily be obtained by students and youths in the area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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